The exit from the nuclear agreement with Iran (JCPOA) deprived the U.S. of the possibility to use UN-legitimised means of pressure. Instead, the U.S. is building pressure through unilateral sanctions that also affect non-American entities. The agreement, however, remains in force. As long as the other participants believe Iran respects it, it is unlikely that the suspended UN sanctions on Iran will be re-imposed. In the long run, the unilateral sanctions will lead to tensions between the U.S. and the EU. The deficit of confidence, also on the part of Iran, will make it difficult to find a way out of the situation.