This article discusses son preference in India, including both greater investment in sons and the fertility preference for sons. Regarding differential investment, I focus on child health and show that gender gaps in inputs and outcomes have narrowed in recent years. Nonetheless, girls remain disadvantaged in important ways, and making health services free is unlikely to be enough to close these remaining gaps. In addition to gender gaps, there are also stark health gaps between eldest sons, whom parents favor, and other sons. Fertility preferences likewise center on eldest sons. The desire to have at least one son — who can fill that eldest son role in the family — drives the skewed sex ratio, and this preference shows little sign of abating. In fact, the downward trend in family size is exacerbating how the desire for a son translates into sex-selection. Families’ quest for a son also imposes collateral damage on sisters’ health. The policy challenge, particularly around reducing the desire for sons, is large. Empowering women is not a panacea, and offering financial incentives to have daughters risks further concentrating girls in poorer families. While we do not know which policies will erase the disadvantages girls face, some that might advance this goal are public pensions as an alternative to old-age support from sons, increased delivery of health services through schools, and norm-change interventions that aim to increase the intrinsic value that Indian families place on girls.